At birth, a baby’s eye has all the potential to see but the brain cannot process the visual information fully as its visual pathway is immature. In fact, in the womb, a baby can see red (the colour of the uterus!) and can track objects, although they can not distinguish between similar shades and the world appears fuzzy to them.
The visual pathway includes the back layer of the eye containing rod and cone photoreceptors which are responsible for converting light into electric signals. These signals are carried via the optic nerve to the visual centre in the brain where the signals are processed; ultimately allowing us to see.
For more information, why not check out our blog on sensory flashcards for babies.